Nobel Prize Winners in 2011

Nobel Prizes in History 
 Alfred Nobel [1833 -1896]
About – Alfred Nobel
A pacifist at heart and an inventor by nature, Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel who invented dynamite was born on October 21, 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden into a family with strong roots in the field of engineering. In 1842, when Alfred was nine years old, Alfred’s father, Immanuel with his familey moved to St. Petersburg, Russia to re-establish himself after bankruptcy incident. Immanuel established a mechanical engineering machineshop in St. Petersburg and soon  obtained a contract from the Russian government to build defense weapons for the army. 

Young Alfred was sent to Paris to study chemistry.  There he met with the Italian student Asciano Sobrero, who discovered nitroglycerine.However, the liquid was too unstable to be manufactured and stored safely. Drops of nitroglycerine could ignite under the blow of a hammer or under elevated temperatures.Nobel retained an interest in this material and the challenge it presented to safe handling.

Alfred established a small factory at Helenborg near Stockholm to manufacture nitroglycerine. He soon began experimenting with nitroglycerine, creating his first explosions in early summer 1862. In Stockholm 1864 an experiment with the highly explosive and unstable nitroglycerine went wrong and Alfred’s brother Emil and several others died in a massive explosion that is still called the Nobel Big Bang.The explosion did not slow down Alfred, and within only a month, he organized other factories to manufacture nitroglycerine.

In 1867, Alfred invented a new and safer-to-handle explosive – dynamite. He patented ‘dynamite’ a term he coined from the Greek word for power. Soon Alfred’s business was booming as this product was five times more effective than the standard gunpowder methods.By the time of his death in 1896 in Italy, Nobel had a total of 355 patents registered to his name. The most famous of these was dynamite.

In 1888 Alfred’s brother Ludvig died while visiting Cannes and a French newspaper erroneously published Alfred’s obituary. The obituary stated Le marchand de la mort est mort (“The merchant of death is dead”) and went on to say, “Dr. Alfred Nobel, who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday.” Alfred was disappointed with what he read and concerned with how he would be remembered.

On 27 November 1895, at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Nobel signed his last will and testament and set aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prizes, to be awarded annually without distinction of nationality. Alfred Nobel, chemist and inventor, died on December 10, 1896 in San Remo at the age of 63 after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage.

The Nobel Prize

The prestigious Nobel Prizes were established in the will of Swedish chemist and inventor Alfred Nobel. It is an international award given yearly by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden since 1901 for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and for peace. In 1968, the Bank of Sweden instituted the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory   of Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize.Each prize consists of a medal, personal diploma, and prize amount.
 Originally, a person could be awarded a prize posthumously if he/she had already been nominated before February 1 of the same year. Since 1974, the Nobel Prize may only be given to a deceased person to whom it was already awarded (usually in October) but who had died before he/she could receive the prize on December 10.

List of all Nobel Prize Laureates 
           – Nobel Prize in Physics
           – Nobel Prize in Chemistry
           – Nobel Prize in Medicine
           – Nobel Prize in Literature
           – Nobel Prize for Peace
           – Nobel Prize in Economics    

The front side of the medal
The front side of “Swedish” medal (Physics and Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature) is the same, featuring a portrait of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death in Latin – NAT-MDCCC XXXIII OB-MDCCC XCVI. On all “Swedish” medals the name of the Laureate is engraved on a plate on the reverse.                        
The back side of the medal
The main inscription on the reverse side of all three “Swedish” Nobel Prize medals is the same: “Inventas vitam juvat excoluisse per artes,” (inventions enhance the life which is beautified by arts). Letters REG. ACAD. SCIENT. SUEC abbreviate The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences   
The nomination of candidates is strictly defined. It differs according to the subject of Nobel Prizes. The disclosure of information about the nominations is restricted, until fifty years have elapsed.  The nominations are closed up on February 1. There are usually 250 nominees for each prize.
Because of the incompleteness and other obstacles presented by Alfred’s will, it took five years of hurdles before the Nobel Foundation could be established and the first prizes awarded.
The First Nobel Prizes
On the fifth anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death, December 10, 1901, the first set of Nobel Prizes were awarded. 
– Chemistry                       : Jacobus H. van’t Hoff
            – Physics                          : Wilhelm C. Röntgen
            – Physiology or Medicine    : Emil A. von Behring
            – Literature                        : Rene F. A. Sully Prudhomme
            – Peace                            : Jean H. Dunant and Frédéric Passy
Nobel Prizes 2011

This year the greatest honor for achievements in specific fields – the Nobel Prizes – were given out throughout the first week of October 2011 i.e from 3rd Oct. to 10th Oct. Announcement of the Noble Prize winner’s name were made by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden as on following dates.
        –   Nobel Prize for Medicine announced on     :   3rd October 
        –   Nobel Prize for Physics announced on      :   4th October 
        –   Nobel Prize for Chemistry announced on   :   5th October 
        –   Nobel Prize for Literature announced on    :   6th October 
        –   Nobel Prize for Peace announced on        :   7th October 
        –   Nobel Prize for Economics announced on :  10th October

The category of peace was added in 1969 and is awarded in Oslo, Norway, while the others are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden.

List of 2011 Nobel Prize Winners
2011 Noble Prize in Medicine
On October 3, 2011 the Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology was awarded jointly to Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann ”for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity” and to Ralph M. Steinman ”for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity“. While Beutler and Hoffman received half the prize, while Steinmen received the other half.Steinman died on 30th Sept. just three days before the announcement.
2011 Noble Prize in Physics
On October 4, 2011 the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Three US-born astrophysicists for their studies of exploding stars that revealed that the expansion of the universe is accelerating.
                Prof. Perlmutter of the University of California, Berkeley, has been awarded half the 10m Swedish krona (US$1,456,000 or £940,000) prize, with Prof. Schmidt of the Australian National University and Prof. Riess of Johns Hopkins University’s Space Telescope Science Institute sharing the other half. The notion of an accelerating expansion of the universe is based on observation of supernovae at high redshift, known as The High-Z SN Search.
2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Israeli scientist Daniel Shechtman won the 2011 Nobel Prize in chemistry on October 5, 2011 for his discovery of quasicrystals, a mosaic-like chemical structure that researchers previously thought was impossible.
Contrary to the previous belief that atoms were packed inside crystals in symmetrical patterns, Shechtman showed that the atoms in a crystal could be packed in a pattern that could not be repeated.
2011 Nobel Prize in Literature
The 2011 Nobel Prize in literature was awarded on 6th October to 80 years old Tomas Transtromer, a Swedish poet whose surrealistic works about the mysteries of the human mind won him acclaim as one of the most important Scandinavian writers since World War II.
                           Unable to speak and suffered a paralysis attack in 1991, which left him half-paralysed Transtromer has been a perennial favourite for the 10 million kronor (USD 1.5 million) award at Stockholm. He was awarded the Prize because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality.
2011 Nobel Prize for peace
The 2011 Nobel Peace Prize was jointly awarded on October 7, 2011 to Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Liberian peace activist Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkul Karman of Yemen for “their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”.Remember that this prize is not given in Stockholm, but in Oslo, the capital of Norway.
2011 Nobel Prize in Economics
The 2011 Economics Nobel, called the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences was jointly awarded on October 10, 2011 to US duo Thomas Sargent and Christopher A Sims for their work on macro-economics and government economic policymaking.This year’s laureates “have developed methods for answering the questions regarding the causal relationship between economic policy and different macro-economic variables, such as GDP, inflation, employment and investments,” the jury said.

The economics prize is the only one of the six Nobels not originally included in the 1895 will of the prizes’ creator, Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel.

This completes the list of winners. The Nobel Prize will be presented on the 10th of December.
Reference :                                   
Congratulations!…. to all the winners for their                        Post Created by –
excellent work  in science & technology and for
mankind .

About Naren
Full name - Narender Jangra      Location - India    Qualification - MCA

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